/ Leon Eisenberg; Stress, development, and family interaction / Judy Dunn; Depressive feelings, cognitions, and disorders: a research postscript / Michael Rutter. Consequently the schooling process has a large role in forming our personalities. Michael Rutter, Box Number P080, Social, ... Methods: We note the need for representative general samples, and for adequate measurement and significance testing if valid conclusions are to be drawn. Example of Meta‐Analysis Mx script. Rutter's Study on Romanian Orphans Romanian Orphans: In 1989 the Ceausescu regime was overthrown and it was found that there were between 100 to 300 thousand school-aged children in orphanages, many of whom had suffered sever emotional and physical deprivation. A Review of General Psychologysurvey, published in 2002, ranked Rutter as the 68th most … Methods: Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). Maximum likelihood estimates of the genetic and environmental variance components. The goal of the Centre is to bridge the gap between ‘nature’ (genetics) and ‘nurture’ (environment) as they interact in the development of complex human behaviour, such as depression and Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder in children. Maximum likelihood estimates of the MZ and DZ twin correlations. Gene-Environment Interactions: Biologically Valid Pathway or Artifact? Rutter’s research is consistent with Bowlby and Harlow (58). VIII. This volume aims to provide the reader with an up-to-date account of knowledge, research, education, and clinical practice in the field of au tism, from an international perspective. Michael Rutter (1972) wrote a book called Maternal Deprivation Re-assessed. ... think any work on genetic markers for resilience is in its infancy and probably akin to the medieval search for a method to create gold. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Bowlby used the term 'maternal deprivation' to refer to separation from an attached figure, loss of an attached figure and failure to develop an attachment to any figure. Results Much the strongest evidence concerns the importance of susceptibility genes, but such genes When is a case a case? Some outstanding issues. The literature was searched for concepts and findings on the validity of child psychiatry and psychology. Bowlby argues that the relationship with the mother is somehow different altogether from other relationships.Essentially, Bowlby (1988) sugge… This article is a commentary on Fearon et al. Professor Sir Michael Rutter announced as joint winner of 2020 Pardes Humanitarian Prize in Mental Health. Be wary of causal claims, Predictive Value of Family History on Severity of Illness The Case for Depression, Anxiety, Alcohol Dependence, and Drug Dependence, Biological Embedding of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Collective Efficacy: Influences on Chronic Illness via Accelerated Cardiometabolic Age, Prenatal detection and molecular cytogenetic characterization of 19q13.42 microduplication: three reported cases and literature review, Reactive attachment disorder and disinhibited social engagement disorder in adolescence: co-occurring psychopathology and psychosocial problems, The Roles of Psychological Capital and Gender in University Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions, Moderating Effects of Parental Characteristics on the Effectiveness of a Theory of Mind Training for Children with Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Parental substance misuse and reproductive timing in offspring: A genetically informed study, Moving the goalposts: Education policy and 25 years of the Black/White achievement gap, Predictors of Better Functioning among Institutionalized Youth: A Systematic Review. However, this field of research has also received criticism for neglecting other, non-causal explanations for the associations (Harden, 2014;Rowe, 2002). Reading attainment between 10 and 14, Black pupils' progress in secondary schools: II. Professor of Developmental Psychopathology. Appendix S2. (2014) presents two main arguments: (1) that there are few (if any) examples of G × E in psychiatry so it cannot aid gene discovery, and (2) that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are already yielding important findings. The concept of resilience has as its starting point the recognition that there is huge heterogeneity in people's responses to all manner of environmental adversities. He carried out definitive research into the effects on children of a lack of stable family life and showed that certain characteristics of schools affected the achievements of their pupils. Table S1. The BAP scores of... Little is known about adult siblings of individuals with autism. Rutter's work includes: early epidemiologic studies (Isle of Wight and Inner London); studies of autism involving a wide range of scientific techniques and disciplin… At 16, black pupils were underrepresented in the highest exam pass grades, but more likely than whites to have achieved at least some graded results. Recent discoveries also show that rare variants of large effect size as well as small effect common gene va... Beginning in the 1960s, the Isle of Wight studies were among the first to investigate developmental reading problems in representative, population-based samples, using the tools of epidemiology. When younger all had been assessed either as being "unaffected" by autism (n = 69) or as meeting criteria for the "Broader Autism Phenotype" (BAP, n = 18). Rutter set up the Medical Research Council (UK)Child Psychiatry Research Unit in 1984 and the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre 10 years later, being honorary director of both until October 1998. The Rutter research : [papers from a seminar, 1979] ... Fifteen thousand hours : secondary schools and their effects on children by Michael Rutter ... Multimodal methods of assessment were used throughout the assessments at 4, 6, 11, and 15 years of age. He was appointed the first consultant of child psychiatry in the UK and has been Head of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, London, and Honorary Director of the Medical Research Council Child Psychiatry Unit. His goal is to explore these Sir Michael Llewellyn Rutter CBE FRS FRCP FRCPsych FMedSci (born 15 August 1933) is the first person to be appointed professor of child psychiatry in the United Kingdom. There is enormous interest in identifying causes of child psychopathology but considerable difficulty in knowing which risks are genuinely causal and in showing how they work. Why is it such a problem and how might we go about testing causal hypotheses? Cortisol release across the day (sampled a... Background: early life institutional deprivation produces disinhibited social engagement (DSE). Institutional deprivation in early childhood is associated with neuropsychological deficits in adolescence. To investigate these questions, we utilized MRI data collected from young adults who were... Background: After postgraduate posts in neurology, paediatrics and cardiology, he undertook training in psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital in London, qualifying with distinction in 1961 before going to spend a year on a research fellowship at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York. Genome-wide association studies using half a million or more markers, particularly those with very large sample sizes achieved through meta-analysis, have shown great success in mapping genes... Parents of 165 children adopted from Romania and 52 children adopted from within the United Kingdom rated the success of the adoptions when the children were 11 years old. In this Personal View that is shaped by clinical experience and research, we adopt a conceptual approach. However not all individuals are affected. Michael Rutter During the second half of the 20th century there was an immense increase in both empirical findings on, and conceptual understanding of, the effects of nature, nurture, and developmental processes on psychological functioning—both normal and abnormal. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when diagnos... Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. Moffitt (1993) proposed that subclassification of CD should be according to age of onset. It is noted that translation involves a two-way pathway between basic laboratory science and patient care, and that some scientific findings have implications for prevention rather than treatment. This page lists the scientific contributions of an author, who either does not have a ResearchGate profile, or has not yet added these contributions to their profile. He studied a group of adolescent boys to see if there was a relationship between delinquent and anti-social behaviour and early separation due to hospitalisation and also due to family problems. He was Deputy Chairman of the Wellcome Trust from 1999 to 2004, and has been a Trustee of the Nuffield Foundation since 1992. The recent release of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association has led to much debate. The study of developmental disorders is an enormous and intrinsically multi-disciplinary field of research. and correlates (IQ history of regression, family history) have only partially been identified. At 10, mean scores for black children of West Indian origin were well below those of whites. Do natural experiments have an important future in the study of mental disorders? Unfortunately, the good science has also been accompanied by ex- Participants were exposed to personal experience of unintended outcomes, to test if they could distinguish intended vs. unintended actions. This study conduct... Background: Contact details: Telephone: 80882. The academic literature of the period included several additional studies but most focused on a limited range of schools and/or local authorities (Driver, 1980;Craft & Craft, 1983;Eggleston et al., 1986;Mabey, 1986; ... Research studying the effects of genetic differences on youth behavioral outcomes has grown, with studies documenting differences in rates of internalizing, externalizing, and other problem behaviors across genotypes (McAdams et al. M Rutter's 84 research works with 12,944 citations and 6,869 reads, including: Deprivation-specific psychological patterns: Effects of institutional deprivation Outcome measures included standardized diagnostic and cognitive assessments and questionnaires on social functioning. 2. Importantly, as childhood environments are to a large degree created by parents and thus influenced by parental genetic predispositions (D'Onofrio, Lahey, Turkheimer, & Lichtenstein, 2013;Kendler & Baker, 2007;Plomin & Bergeman, 1991; ... During the 1980s, therefore, the most prominent official statistics on the Black/ White gap were based on one-off special investigations that did not even operationalise a separate category for White students (Rampton, 1981;Swann, 1985). To describe current social functioning in a clinical sample of 60 adults with autism (mean age = 44 years) who were all of average nonverbal IQ (70+) when first diagnosed (mean age = 6.75 years). Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. We s... Background Childhood factors that predict later stability, improvement or decline in cognitive functioning remain uncertain a... Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Exposure to adverse rearing environments including institutional deprivation and severe childhood abuse is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems across the lifespan. Early institutional deprivation is a risk factor for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. A general assumption is that science is just organised commonsense. The interplay between our genetic predispositions and the environments we experience (G-E interplay) is an essential consideration for the biological embedding of experience, as there are differences in the extent to which individuals are responsive to their experiences (1, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (50), Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (22), Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (19). The English & Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study follows children who spent their first years of life in extremely depriving Romanian institutions before they were adopted by families in the UK. We now know autism is one of the most highly heritable disorders with negligible shared environmental contributions. Time-limited, early-life exposures to institutional deprivation are associated with disorders in childhood, but it is unknown whether effects persist into adulthood. The ERA study constitutes a "natural experiment" that allows the examination of the effects of radical environmental change from a profoundly depriving institut... Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. This study presents follow-up findings on the reading progress of black and white children from an inner London sample between the ages of 10 and 14. ... Retrospect and Prospect’ Michael Rutter 2005. ...SCLY2: Education with Sociological Research Methods Student Guide Introduction According to sociologist Michael Rutter we spend 15000 hours in the education system. In this chapter, we review what is meant by these concepts, and then seek to pull together the findings from the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) studies... A common polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5HTT) has been repeatedly shown to moderate the influence of childhood adversity and stressful life events on the development of psychopathology. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44 years) whom we have followed over four decades. Michael Rutter (1981) disagreed with Bowlby. Professor Michael Rutter: Research Students; Research Outputs Research funding Professor Michael Rutter. (2014), Commentary: Attachment is a biological concept - a reflection on Fearon et al. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Objective: One of the most influential was Maternal Deprivation Reassessed (1972) in which he argued (against John Bowlby) that it was the norm for children to form multiple attachments rather than a selective attachment with just one person. However, associations with prenatal risk factors may arise because of postnatal risk or through confounders, including inherited ones. 27 October 2020. Examination attainments, Epilepsy in autism: Features and correlates, Early Developmental Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from an International Multiplex Sample, Research Review: Child psychiatric diagnosis and classification: concepts, findings, challenges and potential, Progress in Understanding Autism: 2007–2010, Against Le Packing: A Consensus Statement, Integrating Science and Clinical Practice, Understanding Intention in normal development and in autism, The Role of Pre- and Postnatal Timing of Family Risk Factors on Child Behavior at 36 months, A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism. Four key findings were particularly striking. Postadoption environmental features, IV. PsyResil is considered as an interactive process between the person and the social environment (Rutter, 1987; ... With respect to the latter variable, for example, a broader measure of autism traits (e.g. The ERA study constitutes a “natural experiment” that allows the examination of the effects of radical environmental change from a profoundly depriving institut... To identify the broader autism phenotype (BAP), the Family History Interview subject and informant versions and an observational tool (Impression of Interviewee), were developed. Michael Rutter wrote a book called Child Deprivation Re-assessed. He has been described as the "father of child psychology". Currently he is professor of developmental psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London and consultant psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital, a post he has held since 1966. Suggestions have been made that many claims concern false-positive findings in the field of child psychology and psychiatry. 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