31–68). Mary Main would later develop the Adult Attachment Interview, which applied attachment theory to adults, and will be explored later in this article (Main, George, Kaplan 1966). Main, M., & Weston, D. (1981). [57] The evidence on the longitudinal stability of attachment security is therefore currently inconclusive. Development and Psychopathology, Special Section on Frightened/frightening Behavior, 18, 309-343. (1990). [17] Behaviors associated with disorganization have been found to undergo transformation from the age of 2 and typically develop into various forms of well-organised controlling behavior toward the parent. In general, disorganized behaviors occur only briefly, before the infant then enters back into one of the Ainsworth A, B or C attachment patterns. ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. The ultimate causation of some infant attachment phenomena. Thoroughly accessible yet academically rigorous, and written by a leading figure in the field, John Bowlby and Attachment Theory is still the perfect introduction to attachment for students of psychology, psychiatry, counselling, social work and nursing. This account has been supported by research findings which show that a range of factors can predict this behavior besides abuse and neglect. Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Goldberg, S., Hood, J., & Swinson, R. P. (1994). The system has three components in early childhood: the monitoring and maintaining of proximity to an attachment figure or figures, flight to these individuals as a haven of safety in times of alarm, and use of these individuals as a secure base for exploration. Earned secure attachment: According to Mary Main, (1995) the primary characteristics of “earned secure attachment” are metacognitional and integrative thinking. Although "possessed of perfect powers to swim away" from him, it returned each time to the point on which he stood. The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children's externalizing behavior: A meta-analytic study, Child Development, 81(2), 435–456. Individual differences in infant responses to the situation were found and three patterns were identified: secure, insecure-avoidant, and insecure-ambivalent.[3]. The work was completed by her student Mary Main, and Main’s research led to shocking conclusions. Lyons-Ruth, K., & Jacobvitz, D. (2008). Mary Main, Erik Hesse, and Siegfried Hesse* The term “attachment” is now in common usage and, as the readers of this Special Issue are aware, is referenced in a rapidly increasing variety of contexts involving child custody (McIntosh & Chisholm, 2008).The aim of this article is to provide judges, Main, M., Goldwyn, R., & Hesse, E. (2003). In M. Yogman & T. B. Brazelton (Eds. The Disorganized Attachment framework also emphasizes the significance of the relational aspect of attachment, particularly during the first year of life. Following completion of her dissertation, Main took up a faculty position in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. (1988). [40] Interviews categorised as secure-autonomous are characterised by their coherent and collaborative nature. (1990). How Attachment Relationships Shape the Self III. In inquiring about the proximate cause of behavior, an attachment researcher may ask "What made him show attachment behavior toward it at this particular moment?" 7 Main, Mary, 2000, “The Adult Attachment Interview: Fear, attention, safety and discourse processes;” also titled “The Organized Categories of Infant, Child, and Adult Attachment: Flexible vs. Inflexible Attention Under Attachment-Related Stress,” Jour of Amer Psychoanalytic Assoc, 48:1055-1095; 2000. Carefully compiled by an editorial partnership which spans both sides of the Atlantic, this new six-volume major work seeks to bring together for the first time important original papers on the subject of Attachment, making it an invaluable resource for all mental health professionals, from psychology, medicine, psychiatry, nursing, counselling, and all modalities of psychotherapy. So in 1982, she created the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) to study the adults, releasing results 1984-96. Mary Main is also co-author of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). New year! A collaborator of Bowlby's, Mary Ainsworth, developed a standardised laboratory observation procedure named the 'Strange Situation' in which an infant would undergo two brief separations and reunions from their caregiver as well as contact with a stranger. Infants were aged between 12 and 18 months. ), Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical and clinical perspectives (pp. Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders, Dissociation, 5(4): 196-204; Main, M., & Morgan, H. (1996). Behavioral and Brain Science, 2: 640-643. Mary Main: Mental Representations, Metacognition, and the Adult Attachment Interview 4. Mary Main was among the first doctoral students of Mary Ainsworth's at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, exploring the relationship between attachment and infant play in her doctoral research. Discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Child Development, 52(3): 932-940. Mary Main has more than 40 published journal articles and book chapters and has over 25,000 google scholar citations (as of January 2015). The caregiving system: A behavioral systems approach to parenting. Main, M., DeMoss, A., & Hesse, E. (1991). Hesse, E. (1996) Discourse, memory, and the Adult Attachment Interview: A note with emphasis on the emerging Cannot Classify category, Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(1), 4-11; Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2002). For example, secure-autonomous parents have been found to be more responsive to their infants than parents with a dismissing or preoccupied attachment state of mind. This implies that the classification is tapping a quality of the relationship, and not merely the child's temperament. For example, the AAI has been applied to diagnosis, treatment, and the evaluation of therapeutic outcomes.[59]. 95–124). ), Growing points of attachment theory and research. Attachment Relationships and the Development of the Self 5. Mary Main (born 1943) is an American psychologist notable for her work in the field of attachment. http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/pdf/Mary_Main_honorary_degree.pdf, Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary_Main&oldid=988433437, University of California, Berkeley College of Letters and Science faculty, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Whereas infants classified as secure would seek their caregiver on reunion, show their distress, and receive comfort, 'avoidance' was a measure of the extent to which an infant kept their attention away from their caregiver and avoided showing their distress. Steele, H., & Steele, M. (2008), Clinical applications of the Adult Attachment Interview. In inquiring about the ultimate cause of behavior, an attachment researcher may ask "What is attachment behavior good for – how does it affect survival and reproduction? The interviewees may claim to have had positive attachment relationships and experiences but provide unconvincing or contradictory evidence to support this, or acknowledge negative experiences but insist these experiences have had little effect or only made them stronger. The interviewees appear to be balanced and objective in their descriptions and evaluations of relationships and overall seem to value attachment. Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2006). Ainsworth's books: Ainsworth, M. and Bowlby, J. Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkeley. ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. This work has been described as 'revolutionary'[1] and Main has been described as having 'unprecedented resonance and influence' in the field of psychology.[2]. To analyze this, Bowlby resumes studies that he previously did for the American psychologist Mary Ainsworth, who observed different interactions between mother and child under a standardized procedure that’s known as the Strange Situation. In other studies however, no longitudinal association has been found. The interface between attachment and intersubjectivity: Perspective from the longitudinal study of disorganized attachment, Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 26(4), 595-616; Lyons-Ruth, K., Bureau, J.-F., Easterbrooks, M., Obsuth, I., Hennighausen, K., & Vulliez-Coady, L. (2013). Cannot classify interviews are rare in samples drawn from low-risk contexts. ), Attachment Across the Life Cycle (pp. [12], Like the Ainsworth classifications, 'disorganized/disoriented attachment' with one caregiver little predicts the classification with another caregiver. Parsing the construct of maternal insensitivity: distinct longitudinal pathways associated with early maternal withdrawal, Attachment & Human Development, 15(5-6), 562-582, Liotti, G. (1992). ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. 161–182). ), Adult attachment scoring and classification system. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Shocking conclusions in infant Strange Situation is a professor at the University of Haifa ( 2011 ) which. To infant disorganized attachment in the biology and neuroscience of attachment: Theory, and! Infant on its caregiver ( pp grossmann, K., Bradley, S., Goldberg, S. Goldberg... One caregiver little predicts the classification with another caregiver Jacobvitz, D. ( )... Abc intervention aims to enhance caregiving sensitivity and decrease frightening behavior and between reproductive couples Bowlby before her has... 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